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Urinary Tract SupporTea
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Q & A
What is the maximum amount someone should consume Urinary Tract SupporTea per month?
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Latin name: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Other names: bearberry, kinnickinick
“The prophylactic effect of UVA-E on recurrent cystitis was evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized study. A total of 57 women who had suffered at least three episodes of cystitis during the year preceding the study were treated with either UVA-E (n = 30) or placebo (n = 27) for 1 month. At the end of the 1-year follow-up period, a statistically significant difference between groups in the number of recurrences was seen. No side effects were reported. We conclude that UVA-E exerts a prophylactic effect on recurrent cystitis.”
Larsson, B., Jonasson, A., & Fianu, S. (1993). Prophylactic effect of UVA-E in women with recurrent cystitis: a preliminary report. Current therapeutic research, 53(4), 441-443.
“Uva-ursi folium (bearberry leaf) has been traditionally used to treat symptoms of lower urinary tract infections. The most representative constituent of this herbal drug is arbutin that is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and undergoes hepatic conjugation to form hydroquinone (HQ) conjugates. As free HQ is crucial for the safety of the herbal preparation, we reviewed published and unpublished experimental and human studies to clarify some outdated assumptions and to support the safety of therapeutic daily doses of Uva-ursi folium extract. Specifically, data on pharmacokinetics and the human exposure of arbutin and HQ were reviewed.
A therapeutic recommended human daily dose of bearberry leaf extract (420 mg hydroquinone derivatives calculated as anhydrous arbutin) liberates free HQ in urine at a maximum exposure level of 11 µg/kg body weight (bw)/d. By means of an experimental no observed effect level value, a permitted daily exposure dose below which there is a negligible risk to human health was estimated for free HQ (100 µg/kg bw/d). Dietary sources of arbutin/HQ that are regularly consumed long term by humans generate comparable free HQ exposure levels.
There is no direct evidence, regarding human data, supporting the fact that free HQ causes convulsion, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or promotion of tumors in humans. Free HQ had no activity promoting pancreatic, bladder, stomach, or liver carcinogenesis. In conclusion, under the recommended use conditions Uva-ursi folium is a safe therapeutic option for treating lower urinary tract infections.”
de Arriba, S. G., Naser, B., & Nolte, K. U. (2013). Risk assessment of free hydroquinone derived from Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi folium herbal preparations. International journal of toxicology, 32(6), 442-453.
Beaux, D., Fleurentin, J., & Mortier, F. (1999). Effect of extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus benth, Hieracium pilosella L., Sambucus nigra L. and Arctostaphylos uva‐ursi (L.) spreng. in rats. Phytotherapy Research, 13(3), 222-225.
Chauhan, B., Yu, C., Krantis, A., Scott, I., Arnason, J. T., Marles, R. J., & Foster, B. C. (2007). In vitro activity of uva-ursi against cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 85(11), 1099-1107.
Frohne, D. (1970). The urinary disinfectant effect of extract from leaves uva ursi. Planta medica, 18(1), 1.
Grases, F., Melero, G., Costa-Bauza, A., Prieto, R., & March, J. G. (1994). Urolithiasis and phytotherapy. International Urology and Nephrology, 26(5), 507-511.
Kemper, K. J. (1999). Uva ursi (arctostaphylos uva-ursi). The Longwood Herbal Task Force.
Koehler, J., & Franz, G. (1993). Bioavailability of drug preparations containing a leaf extract of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengl.(Uvae ursi folium). Pharmaceutical and pharmacological letters, 3, 63-66.
Kubo, M., Ito, M., Nakata, H., & Matsuda, H. (1990). Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. I. Combined effect of 50% methanolic extract from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.(bearberry leaf) and prednisolone on immuno-inflammation. Yakugaku zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 110(1), 59-67.
Matsuda, H., Nakamura, S., Shiomoto, H., Tanaka, T., & Kubo, M. (1992). Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. IV. Effect of 50% methanolic extract from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.(bearberry leaf) on melanin synthesis. Yakugaku zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 112(4), 276-282.
Matsuda, H., Tanaka, T., & Kubo, M. (1991). Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. III. Combined effect of arbutin and indomethacin on immuno-inflammation. Yakugaku zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 111(4-5), 253-258.
Shimizu, M., Shiota, S., Mizushima, T., Ito, H., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., & Tsuchiya, T. (2001). Marked potentiation of activity of β-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by corilagin. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 45(11), 3198-3201.
Spooner, J. B. (1984). Alkalinisation in the management of cystitis. Journal of international medical research, 12(1), 30-34
Quintus, J., Kovar, K. A., Link, P., & Hamacher, H. (2005). Urinary excretion of arbutin metabolites after oral administration of bearberry leaf extracts. Planta medica, 71(02), 147-152.
Latin name: Chimaphilla umbellata
Other names: prince’s pine, king’s cure, ground holly, love in winter, rheumatism weed, umbellate wintergreen
Galván, et al. notes that “Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae), commonly known as pipsissewa or umbellate wintergreen, has been used by First Nations Peoples of eastern Canada as a traditional medicine for infections, inflammations of various kinds, kidney stones, gonorrhea, stomachache, backache, and coughs; it has also been used as a blood purifier, diuretic and astringent.”
Galván, I. J., Mir-Rashed, N., Jessulat, M., Atanya, M., Golshani, A., Durst, T., … & Cruz, I. (2008). Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata. Phytochemistry, 69(3), 738-746.
Kedzia, B., Wrociński, T., Mrugasiewicz, K., Gorecki, P., & Grzewińska, H. (1975). Antibacterial action of urine containing products of arbutin metabolism. Medycyna doswiadczalna i mikrobiologia, 27(3), 305-314.
Schindler, G., Patzak, U., Brinkhaus, B., Nieciecki, A., Wittig, J., Krähmer, N., … & Veit, M. (2002). Urinary Excretion and Metabolism of Arbutin after Oral Administration of Arctostaphylos uvae ursi Extract as Film‐Coated Tablets and Aqueous Solution in Healthy Humans. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42(8), 920-927.
Shin, B. K., Kim, J., Kang, K. S., Piao, H. S., Park, J. H., & Hwang, G. S. (2015). A new naphthalene glycoside from Chimaphila umbellata inhibits the RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation. Archives of pharmacal research, 38(11), 2059-2065.
Latin name: Plantago lanceolata
Other names: broad-leaf plantain, greater plantain
Dalar el al. concluded that “Aqueous extracts of Plantago lanceolata and Malva neglecta, two plants from eastern regions of Turkey used as medicinal plants, exhibited potent antioxidant capacities, comparable or superior to multiple herbs and Chinese medicinal plants. The levels of phenolic compounds correlated well with antioxidant activities.”
Dalar, A., Türker, M., & Konczak, I. (2012). Antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents of Malva neglecta Wallr. and Plantago lanceolata L. from Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2(2), 42-51.
Hausen, B. M., & Schiedermair, I. (1988). The sensitizing capacity of chimaphilin, a naturally‐occurring quinone. Contact dermatitis, 19(3), 180-183.
Kalantari, A., Kósa, D., Nemes, D., Ujhelyi, Z., Fehér, P., Vecsernyés, M., … & Vasas, G. (2017). Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Containing Plantago lanceolata—An Assessment of Their Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Effects. Molecules, 22(10), 1773.
Latin name: Agathosma betulina
Other names: round buchu, short buchu
“Buchu leaves and oil of buchu were used by the indigenous people of South Africa for hundreds of years. The medicinal use of buchu was taken up by the early Dutch settlers and later introduced into the pharmaceutical industry in the UK.
Buchu preparations are now used as a diuretic and for a wide range of conditions including stomach aches, rheumatism, bladder and kidney infections and coughs and colds.”
Simpson, D. (1998). Buchu—South Africa’s amazing herbal remedy. Scottish medical journal, 43(6), 189-191.
“Biosynthesis of certain compounds in in vitro culture of Buchu was induced by plant growth regulator application compared to the control. The plants possess a number of pharmacological properties including anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant.”
Witbooi, H., Okem, A., Makunga, N. P., & Kambizi, L. (2017). Micropropagation and secondary metabolites in Agathosma betulina (Berg.). South African Journal of Botany, 111, 283-290.
Moolla, A., & Viljoen, A. M. (2008). ‘Buchu’–Agathosma betulina and Agathosma crenulata (Rutaceae): A review. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 119(3), 413-419.
Latin name: Urtica dioica
Other names: stinging nettle
Notes that “In urinary conditions, stinging nettle herb is used for reducing hematuria due to infection or stones, increasing volume of urine, and for reducing kidney stone size or recurrence.”
Upton, R. (2013). Stinging nettles leaf (Urtica dioica L.): Extraordinary vegetable medicine. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 3(1), 9-38.
A review of Safarinejad’s study highlights that, “Results [from Safarinejad’s study] offer some preliminary evidence that long-term treatment (up to 18 months) with stinging nettle root might substantially improve lower urinary tract symptoms in men with BPH [benign prostatic hyperplasia]. The degree of improvement is impressive, with an 8 point improvement in the IPSS in 6 months, compared to a 1.5 point improvement with placebo.”
Safarinejad, M. R. (2005). Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy, 5(4), 1-11.
Yarnell, E. (1998). Stinging nettle: A modern view of an ancient healing plant. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 4(3), 180-186.
Latin name: Althaea officinalis
Other names: althaea, althea
“The hexane extracts of flower and root of Althaea officinalis which were collected from northwestern Iran (Khalkhal) were obtained by Soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were derived from methyl esters and determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems. The hexane extract from the flower and root contained omega-3 (20.5 and 14.9%, respectively). The other main compounds of the flower extract were palmitic acid (13.0%), heptacosane (9.3%) and nonacosane (11.2%).
In the root extract, palmitic acid (16.8%), linoleic acid (omega-6) (28.0%) and naphthalene decahydro 2, 6- dimethyl (16.4%) were the main components. The antimicrobial activity of the hexane extracts of those samples were determined against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), as well as three fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The bioassay showed that the both extracts exhibited good antimicrobial activity. This study reveals that all the parts of this plant are attractive sources of fatty acid components.”
Valiei, M., Shafaghat, A., & Salimi, F. (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the flower and root hexane extracts of Althaea officinalis in Northwest Iran. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(32), 6972-6976.
Al-Snafi, A. E. (2013). The pharmaceutical importance of Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea: A review. Int J Pharm Tech Res, 5(3), 1387-1385.
Shah, S. A., Akhtar, N., Akram, M., Shah, P. A., Saeed, T., Ahmed, K., & Asif, H. M. (2011). Pharmacological activity of Althaea officinalis L. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(24), 5662-5666.
Other Urinary Tract Herbs and Literature
Head, K. A. (2008). Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract. Alternative Medicine Review, 13(3).
Rotblatt, M., & Ziment, I. (Eds.). (2002). Evidence-based herbal medicine. Hanley & Belfus.
Werbach, M., & Murray, M. (2000). Urinary tract infection. Botanical influences on illness: A sourcebook of clinical research (2nd ed., pp. 567-569) Third Line Press.
Yarnell, E. (2002). Botanical medicines for the urinary tract. World journal of urology, 20(5), (pp 285-293).
[We’re happy to report that after consuming the tea for 2 days she reported that she was!]